Some Catholics, who are part of a very small minority, completely reject the evolution theory and even claim it is heresy. Venerable Pius XII spoke on his.
“The Church does not forbid that…research and discussions, on the part of men experienced in both fields, take place with regard to the doctrine of evolution, in as far as it inquires into the origin of the human body as coming from pre-existent and living matter.”
~Ven. Pius XII (Humani Generis, n. 36)
The Church has never claimed to dogmatically define anything in regards to natural science even though some individual Catholics have attempted to. It is clear from Pius’ words that he has taken a neutral stance on evolution just as the Church has. Here is what Blessed John Henry Newman had to say.
“Mr. Darwin’s theory need not then to be atheistical, be it true or not; it may simply be suggesting a larger idea of Divine Prescience and Skill.”
~Bl. John Henry Newman (Letter to J. Walker of Scarborough, May 22, 1868)
I have noticed some have been quoting the 1860 Council of Cologne to condemn evolution in its entirety.
Bear in mind the Council of Cologne is not an ecumenical council and does not necessarily have any dogmatic weight therefore. Also the author of the article below explains how the Council of Cologne critized natural transformism, which basically is the evolution theory as upheld by Atheists and Agnostics (that God did not have anything to do with evolution or the creation of man) while leaving alone special transformism which is the evolution theory as held by theists (that evolution was the method through which God created man).
You can read it here.